First step in the beer production is preparing of wort. It is start the milling of malt.
After that it continue to mix crushed malt with water. The next process is mashing. It means
gradual heating masch and holding the technology imprtant temperature breaks. The most important
technology breaks are 37 °C (acid-forming), 52 °C (degradation of proteins), 63 °C (low sugar-forming)
and 72 °C (high sugar-forming). Type of mashing has a big influence on the taste charakter of final beer.
Double mash system is the most used for Czech type beer (infusion metod is no suitable).
We acquire by mashing process all important substances off malt. Next step is filtration. During filtration
there is necessary separated rest of crushed malt (spent grains). The name of clarity liquid is first wort.
The last wort is removed from the spent grains by sparging with hot water. It is significant by economic
and for acquirement some important substances. Name of final clarity liquid (first and last wort)
is wort or sweet wort.
Now we have clarity liquid with all important substances by malt. Following process is wort boiling (boiling
wort with hop). It is generally the intensive boil (90 minutes). During the wort boiling the wort acquires
bitter, aromatic and other substances by hop. Final product has name wort (hoped wort). Last process in
preparation of wort is trub separation (precipitated during wort boiling) and cooling the wort.
Primary and secondary fermentation
The pitching yeast is added in wort (cooled on 6 - 8 °C and aerated). Their mission is formed alcohol and
from fermentable sugar (created by mash process). Together with alcohol is formed also other substances
that have influence for final taste of beer. These substances (high alcohols, esters and low fatty acids etc.)
are formed on inpurity, temperature or other conditiones during primary fermentation. These substances have
very negative influence for taste final beer.
The fermentation is exoterm process, that warm the wort on temperature 9 - 15 °C and this temperature keeps in
all time of primary fermentation. The base rule of old brewers was gravity of wort is similar days of primary
fermentation, for this time fermentation is quicker.
After fermenting about 60 % extract the green beer is cooled, the yeast is separated by beer and beer is
transfer to storage tank (or other CCT). The last phase of fermentation proceeded in storage tank. Carbon
dioxide (rising during fermentation) is dissolved in beer (higher pressure - 1 atm and lower temperature 1 °C)
There are proceeded the taste harmonization.
Time of secondary fermentation is from two weeks (low alcoholic beer - CCT) till several months (premium and
special beer - classical technology)
The most significant changes was made in phase primary and secondary fermentation. Classical technology used
open fermenting tubs and storages tanks, modern technology use with CCT (cylindro - conical tanks). The modern
technology can use only one tank for primary and secondary fermentation (one-phase fermentation technology)
or different tanks for primary and secondary fermentation (two-phase fermentation technology).
Resulting product is "nonfiltered beer".
Filtration and filling
Majority of brewery expert consider "nonfiltered beer" from storage tanks as a best product of brewery,
the customers wont absolutely clarity liquid in pint (KEG) or bottles. Therefore nonfiltred beer
is necessary filtrered. For this we use kieselgur candle filter. Beer is cleaned from all trub, and it can
be increased its durability by adsorption some substances. The last step is filling (bottle, KEG). For
increasing biilogy durability we can pasteurized beer.